Sunday, May 24, 2020

Geodesy and the Earths Size and Shape

Earth, with an average distance of 92,955,820 miles (149,597,890 km) from the sun, is the third planet and one of the most unique planets in the solar system. It formed around 4.5 to 4.6 billion years ago and is the only planet known to sustain life. This is because of factors like its atmospheric composition and physical properties such as the presence of water over 70.8% of the planet allow life to thrive. Earth is also unique however because it is the largest of the terrestrial planets (one that have a thin layer of rocks on the surface as opposed to those that are mostly made up of gases like Jupiter or Saturn) based on its mass, density, and diameter. Earth is also the fifth largest planet in the entire solar system. Earths Size As the largest of the terrestrial planets, Earth has an estimated mass of 5.9736 Ãâ€" 1024 kg. Its volume is also the largest of these planets at 108.321 Ãâ€" 1010km3. In addition, Earth is the densest of the terrestrial planets as it is made up of a crust, mantle, and core. The Earths crust is the thinnest of these layers while the mantle comprises 84% of Earths volume and extends 1,800 miles (2,900 km) below the surface. What makes Earth the densest of these planets, however, is its core. It is the only terrestrial planet with a liquid outer core that surrounds a solid, dense inner core. Earths average density is 5515 Ãâ€" 10 kg/m3. Mars, the smallest of the terrestrial planets by density, is only around 70% as dense as Earth. Earth is classified as the largest of the terrestrial planets based on its circumference and diameter as well. At the equator, Earths circumference is 24,901.55 miles (40,075.16 km). It is slightly smaller between the North and South poles at 24,859.82 miles (40,008 km). Earths diameter at the poles is 7,899.80 miles (12,713.5 km) while it is 7,926.28 miles (12,756.1 km) at the equator. For comparison, the largest planet in Earths solar system, Jupiter, has a diameter of 88,846 miles (142,984 km). Earths Shape Earths circumference and diameter differ because its shape is classified as an oblate spheroid or ellipsoid, instead of a true sphere. This means that instead of being of equal circumference in all areas, the poles are squished, resulting in a bulge at the equator, and thus a larger circumference and diameter there. The equatorial bulge at Earths equator is measured at 26.5 miles (42.72 km) and is caused by the planets rotation and gravity. Gravity itself causes planets and other celestial bodies to contract and form a sphere. This is because it pulls all the mass of an object as close to the center of gravity (the Earths core in this case) as possible. Because Earth rotates, this sphere is distorted by the centrifugal force. This is the force that causes objects to move outward away from the center of gravity. Therefore, as the Earth rotates, centrifugal force is greatest at the equator so it causes a slight outward bulge there, giving that region a larger circumference and diameter. Local topography also plays a role in the Earths shape, but on a global scale, its role is very small. The largest differences in local topography across the globe are Mount Everest, the highest point above sea level at 29,035 ft (8,850 m), and the Mariana Trench, the lowest point below sea level at 35,840 ft (10,924 m). This difference is only a matter of about 12 miles (19 km), which is quite minor overall. If the equatorial bulge is considered, the worlds highest point and the place that is farthest from the Earths center is the peak of the volcano Chimborazo in Ecuador as it is the highest peak that is nearest the equator. Its elevation is 20,561 ft (6,267 m). Geodesy To ensure that the Earths size and shape are studied accurately, geodesy, a branch of science responsible for measuring the Earths size and shape with surveys and mathematical calculations is used. Throughout history, geodesy was a significant branch of science as early scientists and philosophers attempted to determine the Earths shape. Aristotle is the first person credited with trying to calculate Earths size and was, therefore, an early geodesist. The Greek philosopher Eratosthenes followed and was able to estimate the Earths circumference at 25,000 miles, only slightly higher than todays accepted measurement. In order to study the Earth and use geodesy today, researchers often refer to the ellipsoid, geoid, and datums. An ellipsoid in this field is a theoretical mathematical model that shows a smooth, simplistic representation of the Earths surface. It is used to measure distances on the surface without having to account for things like elevation changes and landforms. To account for the reality of the Earths surface, geodesists use the geoid which is a shape that is constructed using the global mean sea level and as a result takes elevation changes into account. The basis of all geodetic work today though is the datum. These are sets of data that act as reference points for global surveying work. In geodesy, there are two main datums used for transportation and navigation in the U.S. and they make up a portion of the National Spatial Reference System. Today, technology like satellites and global positioning systems (GPS) allow geodesists and other scientists to make extremely accurate measurements of the Earths surface. In fact, it is so accurate, geodesy can allow for worldwide navigation but it also allows researchers to measure small changes in the Earths surface down to the centimeter level to obtain the most accurate measurements of the Earths size and shape.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay on Portrayal of Women in the Media - 3123 Words

Portrayal of Women in the Media Gender is the psychological characteristics and social categories that are created by human culture. Doing gender is the concept that humans express their gender when they interact with one another. Messages about how a male or female is supposed to act come from many different places. Schools, parents, and friends can influence a person. Another major factor that influences millions of impressionable females and males is television. Not only does the television teach each sex how to act, it also shows how one sex should expect the other sex to act. In the current television broadcasting, stereotypical behavior goes from programming for the very small to adult audiences. In this broadcasting range,†¦show more content†¦When adults are shown on the show the men are seen as rugged construction workers or mailmen, while the women are seen as cooks and mothers. Also, children are shown examples of items that their sex is expected to like. When the children on the television are asked what animals are their favorite, â€Å"girls name teddy bears and kitties, boys name big lions, grizzly and polar bears.† This makes the girls seem innocent, only liking things that are cuddly and do not post threats to those around them. Teletubbies also shows a definitive way the females are supposed to act. This show â€Å"maintains sex-role stereotypes such as caretaker and follower for girls.† The show has four main characters called Tubbies. Tinky Winky, Dipsy, Laa Laa and Po are their names. They differ in size and color. The two larger Tubbies, Tinky Winky and Dipsy are the male characters and dressed in dark, masculine colors. Laa Laa and Po are the smaller Tubbies and dressed in light, feminine colors. The males are always seen as being more active, running around and dancing. The girls sing together and eat. Tinky Winky is also the leader ofShow MoreRelatedMedia s Portrayal Of Women1190 Words   |  5 Pageswith appearance and numb to sexism, it comes as no surprise that women are expressing hate for their bodies more than ever before. Mass media’s portrayal of women is one of unattainable perfection— most models are stick thin with flawless complexions and pearl-white smiles. Consumers are bombarded with images of women being displayed as sex objects, valued for their physical appearance above all else. The evasiveness of media has led women to believe they must resemble the models pictured in advertisementsRead MoreMedia s Portrayal Of Women1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe media is everywhere; phones, televisions, magazines, so it is hard not to be exposed to some type of media platform throughout the day. Among these forms of media are photos and videos of woman idealized as the perfect woman. Magazines release photos of women whose looks are highly unachievable and thought as as the ideal woman. An average woman exposed to these photos may feel depresssed and may want to look like the model through unsafe dieting and other eating disorders. The media has affectedRead MoreMedia s Portrayal Of Women1588 Words   |  7 Pages Media represents males and females by gendering them in different categories. According to a presentation, the author states, â€Å"Media perceives women in a very sexual manner whereas men are symbolized as powerful (Khan). Over and over again, the one thing that the media reveals is that women are very sexual beings. They show that they are only good for taking care of the home and the man is very powerful. For example, the author on the presentation shows a ad that a man is in a life guard outfitRead MoreMedia s Portrayal Of Women2007 Words   |  9 PagesIn addition to the unbelievably high beauty standards women are expected to achieve as a result of the media’s portrayal of women, they are also expected to create and maintain a perfect household. Interior design is often perceived by contemporary society as a feminine interest. As a result, a majority of publications dedicated to home decoration are targeted towards women. Whether or not it is directly stated, a magazine’s attempt to target a particular sex can be identified through both the subjectRead MoreMedia Portrayal of Women and Its Effects1187 Words   |  5 Pageshas changed drastically, which can be directly attributed to the powerful persuasion of media. This ideal image has transformed from a voluptuous, size 14, 1950’s Marilyn Monroe to a 5’9, 100 pound, 1990’s Kate Moss. The most shocking aspect is specifically what young girls are now doing to achieve this â€Å"Kate Moss† image . Through the utilization of advertisements and stars on the big screen, this female portrayal directly targets the physical and mental well-being of females in cultures across theRead MorePortrayal of Women in the Media Essay3165 Words   |  13 PagesPortrayal of Women in the Media Gender is the psychological characteristics and social categories that are created by human culture. Doing gender is the concept that humans express their gender when they interact with one another. Messages about how a male or female is supposed to act come from many different places. Schools, parents, and friends can influence a person. Another major factor that influences millions of impressionable females and males is television. Not only does the televisionRead MorePortrayal of Women in the Media Essay1291 Words   |  6 Pagesevery four college-aged women use unhealthy methods of weight and diet control – including fasting, skipping meals, and laxative abuse. The pressure to be thin is also affecting young girls; the Canadian Women’s Health Network warns that weight control measures are now being taken by girls as young as 5 and 6. In 2003, Teen Magazine reported that 35% of girls 6 to 12 years of age have already been on at least one diet. It is estimated that up to 450,000 young girls and women were/are affected by anRead MoreEssay on Portrayal of Black Women in Media1635 Words   |  7 PagesThe Portrayal of African-American Women in Media The stereotypical misrepresentations of African-American women and men in popular culture have influenced societal views of Blacks for centuries. The typical stereotypes about Black women range from the smiling, a sexual and often obese Mammy to the promiscuous Jezebel who lures men with her sexual charms. However, the loud, smart mouthed, neck-rolling Black welfare mother is the popular image on reality television. These images portrayed in mediaRead MoreFalse Portrayal Of Women s Media1683 Words   |  7 PagesFalse Portrayal of Women in Media â€Å"We as women are trained to see ourselves as cheap imitations of fashion photographs, rather than seeing fashion photographs as cheap imitations of women†-Naomi Wolfe. In most advertisements as well as some movies and tv shows, women are shown in not very much clothing, while also being photoshopped and airbrushed. Young women and girls are constantly being sexualized in the media, in order to make more money, and sell more of whatever is being advertised. ManyRead More The Portrayal of Women in the Media Essay examples3424 Words   |  14 PagesThe Portrayal of Women in the Media Redbook magazine are devoted to selling products ranging from shoes to shampoo. The entire magazine only has only 210 pages. Approximately 6-8 min of every half hour television show is produced by ad agencies. Americans are bombarded with advertisements. We see them everyday in many different forms and through different mediums. Advertisers study America’s population through a systematic breakdown and analysis of our likes and dislikes in relation to our differences

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Tell Tale Heart Essay Free Essays

HTH s idea is portrayed hen we see the protagonists struggle between himself and the old man’s eve axed eye. As the story progresses, the conflict between the protagonist and the beating heart r enders the idea of the narrator versus himself. The external struggle within the Story seems to be the narrator’s conflict with the old man. We will write a custom essay sample on Tell Tale Heart Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The protagonist loved the old man, eliminating motives that might normally in spire such a violent murder. As he proclaims his own sanity, the narrator fixates on the old man’s vulture. â€Å"It was open wide, wide open and grew furious as gazed upon it. Saw it wit h perfect strictness all a dull blue, with a hideous veil over it that chilled the very mar row in my bones; but I could see nothing else of the old man ‘s face or person: for I had directed the ray as if by instinct, precisely upon the damned spot. † The narrator reduces the old man t o the distinctive blue of his eye in obsessive fashion. He separates the man from his â€Å"Evil Eye† so he can spare the man the burden of guilt that he attributes to the eye itself. The narrator FAA ills to see that the eye of the old man is a fundamental part of his identity that cannot be isolate d as the narrator abnormally imagines. As a result of his warped sense of reality, the narrator obsesses over the low beats of the man’s heart, yet shows little concern about the man’s shrieks, which are loud enough to attract his neighbor’s attention and draw the police to the scene of the crime. Through hoot the story, he explains that he is not mad, but ironically, he is the opposite of this, as he strut eagles to comprehend his own mind. The narrator’s paranoia and guilt make it mine NT that he will give himself away. The police arrive on the scene to give him the opportunity to be tray himself. The more the narrator professes his own calm manner, the more he is unable to e cape the beating of his own heart, which he mistakes for the beating of the old man’s heart. As he confesses to the crime in the final sentence, he addresses the policemen as â€Å"villains,† indicating g his incapability to distinguish between their real identity and his own villainy. The internal conflict within the story is disguised as external conflict, through t he way that Poe describes the struggle of man versus man and man versus self. The protagonist battles with the old man’s â€Å"vexed† eye; however, this slowly turns into a combat bet en the narrators own mind, as he tries to escape the beating of his own heart. How to cite Tell Tale Heart Essay, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

Mending Wall free essay sample

This essay compares and contrasts two poems, Mending Wall by Robert Frost, and Mother to Son by Languor Hughes. Very useful if assigned to compare and contrast two poems. BY harshness The poems Mending Wall by Robert Frost, and Mother to Son by Languor Hughes are very similar in many ways, and yet very different in others. Mother to Son is written from a mother telling her son that life isnt easy and not to give up. Mending Wall is about a man fixing a wall that has holes in it.Both of these poems re about the hard work it takes to get something done. Each of these poems teaches us to never give up when times get hard. The subject of Mending Wall Is about two neighbors who are fixing a wall that has holes In It. Mother to Son has a very different subject; a mother teaching her son about life and to never give up. We will write a custom essay sample on Mending Wall or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I believe the theme of both poems Is that problems will always happen and you just have to do your best, keep going, and never give up. These two poems have very different subjects yet very similar themes.These two poems have very different uses of imagery. Some examples of the imagery used in Mending Wall are: the apples eating pioneers, and old-stone savaged arms. Tacks, splinters, crystal stairs, places with no carpet, turning corners, and landings are examples of the imagery used in Mother to Son. Spring is the mischief in me is an example of a simile used in Mending Wall. In Mother to Son when the mother compares her life to a crystal stair, this Is the use of a metaphor.In Mending Wall the poem Is spoken from the first person point of view from one of the men building the wall. The first person point of view Is also used in Mother to Son, yet it is from the mother. I believe that the tone in Mother to Son is helpful. In Mending Wall, I believe the tone is also kind of helpful. But curious. As one can see, these two poems are very similar to one another, and yet unique in their own way. In my own opinion, these are two great poems worth reading. Mother to Son is more upbeat, and Mending Wall is almost like a short story.I believe both of these poems are alike In the way that both of them are about problems, but different because the problems they face are different. The mother in Mother to Son knows all the answers and is passing them to her son, and in Mending Wall the man wants to find out the answers. BY womanish The subject of Mending Wall is about two neighbors who are fixing a wall that has holes in it. Mother to Son has a very different subject; a mother teaching her son about life and to never give up.I believe the theme of both poems is that problems will always happen and you Just have to do your best, keep going, and never give up. When the mother compares her life to a crystal stair, this is the use of a metaphor. In Mending Wall the poem is spoken from the first person point of view from one of the men building the wall. The first person point of view is also used in Mother to Mending Wall, I believe the tone is also kind of helpful, but curious. Of these poems are alike in the way that both of them are about problems,

Monday, March 30, 2020

Television Influence Essays (1329 words) - Behavior, Human Behavior

Television Influence Television influences behaviors, social attitudes and physical health especially in children. Children today spend more time watching television than on any other single leisure activity. In fact, studies have shown that "the average child spends more time in front of the television than in school" (Clarke and Kurte-Coastes, 1997). There are a variety of influences that children gain from watching too much television. The impact of violence on children is a major issue, as well as the impact of stereotypical views, such as sex roles. Health can also become a problem for children who spend excessive amounts of time in front of the television. There are, however, alternatives to these problems. Parent, schools and the governments need to take control and monitor children and television. After all, television was once used as an educational tool it has only recently become a babysitter. The effect of violence in television has been debated for many years. In a recent study, Strasburger and Donnerstein (1999), suggests that there is a positive correlation between violence viewed on television and aggressive behavior in children. The way television violence is portrayed encourages children to learn aggressive attitudes and behaviors. For example most violence on television is glamorized by using a "good" character that is likely to be perceived as role model to initiate violence. This gives children the impression that violence is justified, desirable, and painless. Violence on television also increases fear or gives children the wrong impression about the world. Many children have a hard time making distinctions about what is real and unreal. Therefore, they begin to believe that the television depicts violence in the "real world." The bottom line is, "children learn their attitudes about violence at a very young age, and once learned, the attitudes tend to be life-long" (Strasburger and Donnerstein, 1999). Television also encourages stereotyped opinions on topics such as sex roles. Research shows that children who spend more time watching television tend to think that both women and men have specified roles in the world (Kent and Moy, 1999). Television usually portrays women as passive and weak compared to men who are usually depicted as strong and dominant (Steinberg and Kincheloe, 1997). This gives children a clear impression of what is expected of them in society. It insists that they too should act this way because it is, after all, what society views appropriate. Television even pushes children toward specific sex role using toys. Most toy commercials, for example, even insist that some toys are only for girls while others are only for boys. Children are very rarely encouraged to play with toys that are known to be for the opposite sex. For example, boys aren't aloud to play with dolls and girls aren't aloud to play with trucks. Television also emphasizes the importance of physical beauty. Stress is placed on looking a certain way, whether it is having the right clothing or being a certain weight. These are influences that children take very seriously considering that most children want to be the "popular" one in school. Take the Mighty Morphine Power Rangers, for example, the female good rangers are viewed typically as beautiful and perfect. The female villains are typically viewed as "repulsive" and are teased. In most schools this is the " kind of schoolyard harassment to which unpopular girls are subjected" (Steinberg and Kincheloe, 1997). Television also takes a major toll on a child's physical health. Obesity in children is rising and television is being credited in playing apart. One reason may be that children are spending less time on physical activities, such as, swimming and riding bikes (Vecchine, 1997). Evidence also shows that children like to snack while watching television, which can add to the weight especially for those children who do not do much physical activity. Commercials on television also play a part in weight gain among children. Commercials tend to enhance a child's craving for the food products being advertised which persuades children to buy their food. In most cases the food advertised on television is high in calories and fat, which adds weight (Anonymous, 1999). Although television influences many children all over the world there are alternatives to the problem. Starting at home parents need to be aware of what their children are watching, as well as how many hours are spent watching television. More importantly parents need to take time to watch and discuss the programs with their children. (victor stasburger and edward donnerstein, 7). This allows for the children, especially the smaller ones who have a hard time differentiating reality form fiction,

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The History and Origin of Aerosol Spray Cans

The History and Origin of Aerosol Spray Cans An  aerosol  is a  colloid  of fine  solid  particles or  liquid  droplets, in the air or another  gas.  Aerosols can be natural or artificial.  Frederick G. Donnan  presumably first used the term  aerosol  during  World War I  to describe an aero-solution, clouds of microscopic particles in the air. Origins The concept of an aerosol originated as early as 1790 when self-pressurized carbonated beverages were introduced in France. In 1837, a man called Perpigna invented a soda siphon incorporating a valve. Metal spray cans were being tested as early as 1862. They were constructed from heavy steel and were too bulky to be commercially successful. In 1899, inventors Helbling and Pertsch patented aerosols pressurized using methyl and ethyl chloride as propellants. Erik Rotheim On November 23, 1927, Norwegian engineer Erik Rotheim (also spelled Eric Rotheim) patented the first aerosol can and valve that could hold and dispense products and propellant systems. This was the forerunner of the modern aerosol can and valve. In 1998, the Norwegian post office issued a stamp celebrating the Norwegian invention of the spray can. Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan During World War II, the U.S. government funded research into a portable way for servicemen to spray malaria-carrying bugs. Department of Agriculture researchers, Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan, developed a small aerosol can be pressurized by a liquefied gas (a fluorocarbon) in 1943. It was their design that made products like hair spray possible, along with the work of another inventor Robert Abplanalp. Robert Abplanalp - Valve Crimp In 1949, 27-year-old Robert H. Abplanalp’s invention of a crimp on valve enabled liquids to be sprayed from a can under the pressure of an inert gas. Spray cans, mainly containing insecticides, were available to the public in 1947 as a result of their use by U.S. soldiers for preventing insect-borne diseases. Abplanalp’s invention made of lightweight aluminum made the cans a cheap and practical way to dispense liquids foams, powders, and creams. In 1953, Robert Abplanalp patented his crimp-on valve for dispensing gases under pressure. His Precision Valve Corporation was soon earning over $100 million manufacturing one billion aerosol cans annually in the United States and one-half billion in 10 other countries. In the mid-1970s, concern over the use of fluorocarbons adversely affecting the ozone layer drove Abplanalp back into the lab for a solution. Substituting water-soluble hydrocarbons for the damaging fluorocarbons created an environmentally friendly aerosol can that did not harm the environment. This put the manufacture of the aerosol spray can products into high gear. Robert Abplanalp invented both the first clog-free valve for spray cans and the Aquasol or pump spray, which used water-soluble hydrocarbons as the propellant source. Spray Paint in a Can In 1949, canned spray paint was invented by Edward Seymour, the first paint color was aluminum. Edward Seymours wife Bonnie suggested the use of an aerosol can be filled with paint. Edward Seymour founded Seymour of Sycamore, Inc. of Chicago, USA, to manufacture his spray paints.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Food security in Eritrea Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Food security in Eritrea - Essay Example Eritrea is a sovereign state, which has been faced with numerous cases of conflict within itself and with its neighbours, especially Ethiopia, due to border demarcation issues, a factor which has resulted to internal displacement of people. Reports indicate that more than 10000 out of the original 70000 internally displaced persons still live in temporary camps, waiting to be resettled by the government (Tesfa, 2008). Apparently, this has been one of the major factors contributing to food shortages due to the fact that these people have no cultivatable land as the war pushed them out of their homes and as such, they can only depend on aid from well wishers and the government. It is estimated that more than 2 million people are affected by food insecurity, translating to approximately 40% of the total population (Tesfa, 2008). The fight for freedom, which lasted for approximately 30 years, left the country in a state of destruction especially in the agricultural sector. This is due to the fact that most of the lands which could be used for farming are littered with unexploded ordinances, which pose a security hazard to the farmers (Rena, 2007). In this context, any person trying to cultivate in these lands risks the possibility of triggering the explosion of land mines, which were buried during the war, but failed to explode. Tensions that continue to exist between Ethiopia and Eritrea have contributed to more installation of these landmines as a defensive mechanism at the expense of the farming communities (Zwi, 2005). The temporary security zone, which is considered to have been the most productive agricultural land measuring approximately 25km2 remains unutilized as a result of these landmines, which have kept away more than 50000 inhabitants, who were displaced by the war, regardless of the fact that n o more fighting takes place in this area (Zwi, 2005). With these developments, food production is deemed to remain low and as such, more people will continue to be affected by extreme hunger. This is also due to the fact that the government has continued to spend a lot of the already scarce resources to finance and facilitate the war with Ethiopia. For instance, it is estimated that more than 300 000 men and women are serving in the army instead of letting them engage in farming activities (Gebre, 2009). Human resource in the agricultural sector is a crucial necessity since activities such as cultivation, planting, and weeding as well as harvesting among others requires to be done in order to guarantee quality harvest. In Eritrea, this has not been the case as it has been observed that there have been limited human resources hence high labour costs. As earlier stated, poor diplomatic relations between the country and its neighbours, i.e. Ethiopia and Sudan, have led to the closure o f the respective borders. This means that no movement is allowed in and from the country, which has continued to impact the economy negatively. It is true to say that if this was not the case, citizens of these nations would have had a chance to interact economically through trading in imports and exports thereby increasing the amount of foreign exchange as well as revenue collected